The following reports are examples of work being done with children and adolescents around the world. If you are an IAAP member, and would like to submit a report about work being done with children in your area, please send your report (500 words) to Christine Hejinian, Chair,
Child and Adolescent Working Party at the following email address: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Infant, Child & Adolescent Training (iCAT)
The C.G. Jung Institute of San Francisco
The Infant, Child, and Adolescent Training (iCAT) is intended for those candidates and analysts in the Institute who have completed requisite child training in their respective disciplines and have had an ongoing child and adolescent clinical practice for several years. For clinical psychologists and master's level psychotherapists, a minimum of two full-time years (or equivalent) of either pre- and/or post-degree clinical seminars in the areas of child/adolescent assessment, psychopathology, and psychotherapy as well as supervised clinical work with children and adolescents with a variety of psychopathologies is required. For psychiatrists, the completion of a two-year child fellowship and Board eligibility are necessary. Prospective iCAT candidates will need to obtain the permission of their respective training committees (reviewing or certifying) before they are able to apply to the program. The formal iCAT training can begin once the candidate has successfully completed all four years of seminars in the adult analytic training program. Admission to the iCAT program will be made by a committee of Jungian iCAT analysts and will be based upon a written application, clinical presentations of child and adolescent cases, and a personal interview. Please see the Institute website for further application details: http://www.sfjung.org/clinical-training-at-the-c-g-jung-institute/the-infant-child-and-adolescent-training-program-icat/
The program consists of seminars, case conferences and individual supervision of child and adolescent cases over a two-year period, conducted in monthly weekend sessions of four hours. In the first year the candidates will participate in an infant observation seminar and will have the opportunity to observe an infant in the context of his/her family for one year, accompanied by a weekly clinical case supervision of either a child or adolescent case.
In the second year the candidates will receive a thorough grounding in Jungian child analytic theory and practice. They will also continue with weekly clinical case supervision of either a child or adolescent case. At the conclusion of the training each candidate will have had at least 50 hours of supervision of a child case and 50 hours supervision of an adolescent case.
It is intended that the curriculum provide an in-depth exposure to the origins of Jungian child/adolescent theory and practice, the intersection of theory with contemporary developmental work with children and adolescents, and the various techniques of child and adolescent analysis.
At the conclusion of the two-year training period and after the successful fulfillment of all program requirements the trainee will present two brief papers on child and adolescent treatment cases to a committee composed of Jungian child and adolescent analysts.
Certification in the iCAT program will not be possible until after the candidate has been certified as an adult Jungian analyst.
There is a great interest in Spain in finding Jungian childhood and adolescence analysts, yet we still do not have enough analysts to meet this demand. Therefore, developing training in child and adolescence analysis is one of the priorities at SEPA. Our training program for candidates always includes some seminars on the study of developmental currents in which we study authors like Fordham, Neumann and Mario Jacoby. In addition, each year we have a seminar given by one of the renowned children's analysts in IAAP. We were able to contact these analysts through our participation in the International Workshop on Analytical Psychology on Childhood and Adolescence, which for 30 years has been held in different places around Europe, such as Italy, France, Germany, Sweden and Spain. In 2009 we organized the Workshop in Poblet, Tarragona and this year we celebrated its 30th anniversary in Seville, where we gathered participants from Germany, Italy, France, Belgium, Brazil, and Spain.
Five years ago, the members of SEPA made the decision of offering open seminars on child and adolescent analysis. We invited Brian Feldman, Brigitte Allain Duprè and Wanda Grosso, among others. Candidates and analysts of our society and from other psychoanalytic societies appreciate these encounters very much. Therefore, a couple of years ago we managed to organize a short-term training program about child and adolescent analysis imparted by Wanda Grosso. This program includes a very didactic clinical content regarding Initiation, Development and the End of the Analysis.
We think the interest in developing this type of training will definitely keep on growing. Thus, we believe that our small training space in this area will be expanded more and more. We realized that we must respond to the demand of our population. Fortunately we have Analysts and candidates keen to develop their training and to deepen in child and adolescence therapy. Moreover, as we agreed the last time we met at the workshop in Sevilla, in SEPA we think that child analysis is a very good occasion for new fields of research with adult’s analysts on the beginnings and development of the psychic life from new born to adulthood to emerge.
Olivia del Castillo- SEPA
S.E.P.A. Pz. Gala Placidia 10, 5o 2a 08006 Barcelona www.sepanalitica.es 697613702Sociedad Española de Psicología Analítica
Paula Pantoja Boechat, M.D.,
Jungian Analyst, MA in Clinical Psychology, Specialist in Systemic Family Therapy, current President of the Brazilian Jungian Association
Child Psychoanalysis in Brazil - A Brief History
Although Rio de Janeiro was the capital of Brazil until 1960, the first psychoanalytic institution, the Brazilian Psychoanalytical Association, was founded in São Paulo in 1927, and only in the following year in Rio.
In 1936, through Ernest Jones, then President of IPA, Adelheid Koch, a German psychoanalyst, came to Brazil and took up residence in São Paulo.
Argentina was more developed. With the Foundation of the Argentinian Psychoanalytic Association in 1942, they had four analyst-professors and other IPA affiliated analysts who came to Rio to lecture (Rascovsky, Garma, Aberastury and Pichon-Rivière). In 1947, a number of Rio analysts resolved moving to Argentina for their training. The State of Rio Grande do Sul, which borders Argentina, was greatly influenced by the Argentinians. In 1948, Mark Burke, a Polish psychoanalyst with Kleinian training, came to Rio, and also Werner Kemper, a German psychoanalyst, with his wife, Kattrin Kemper.
Psychoanalysis was brought to Brazil mainly by psychiatrists, but child psychoanalysis came through pediatricians and educators. In 1935, in São Paulo and Rio, government agencies created the "Mental Hygiene School Sector" with the purpose of guiding students with educational difficulties and avoiding the emergence of character deviations in these children. An influence of the United States’ Hygiene Movement.
In 1954, Décio Soares de Souza, from Porto Alegre, the first Brazilian child psychoanalyst, and in the following year, Décio da Almeida, returning to Rio, arrived from London after completing their Kleinian training.
In the early 60’s, in São Paulo, the influence of Bion, brought by Frank Phillips, became important.
In the late 60’s, Kattrin Kemper joined other well-known psychoanalysts as Hélio Pelegrino to promote the "Psychoanalytic Meetings" in Rio de Janeiro. Weekly psychoanalytic aid sessions open to the public with 80 to 120 participants.
In 1973, Kattrin Kemper, Hélio Pellegrino, psychologists and psychoanalysts, founded the "Social Clinic of Psychoanalysis".
When I returned to Brazil in 1979, I was invited to collaborate in the Children's Department of the Social Clinic of Psychoanalysis. We attended to children and adolescents groups, and parental guidance.
Currently the training given by the Brazilian Jungian Association identifies with the London Developmental Group research, mainly texts by Michael Fordham and his disciples, as well as texts by Bion, Winnicott and Melanie Klein. We also study texts by systemic authors, very important in understanding the child’s role within each family.
(Seen on 7/15/2013)
Brian Feldman (child, adolescent and adult analyst)
Infant Observation in Russia: Focusing a Lens on Culture and Trauma
Moscow is now a location where important research is being done in the area of infant observation. Russia has undergone dramatic changes during the last several decades after the collapse of the Soviet Union. These changes have had a deep impact upon the individual, the family and society. A group of Russian Jungian analysts (Nataliya Alexandrova, Anna Kazakova, Tanja Rebekota, Maria Schapova, and Olga Sidel) , and myself as seminar leader, have been utilizing the infant observation method developed by Esther Bick, and now widely utilized throughout the world as a training and research methodology, to help understand the impact of these profound cultural changes upon the development of the infant within the context of his/her family in Moscow. We have been looking at the evolution of attachment processes, the nature of inter-subjectivity within the Russian family, and how culture impacts the emergence of primitive and infantile states of mind in the Russian cultural context. Our research group meets for two hours weekly over skype and additionally we have ‘marathon’ face to face sessions each year. During group sessions we reflect upon each of the infant observations and generate meanings based upon the individual reports and the impact these reports have upon our individual and group reverie processes. We utilize our individual and group reverie and reflective function to help us understand the unique journey of each individual infant within the context of their family. Some of the important concepts we have reflected upon are the concept of the cultural skin as a container of psychological and social experience, the unconscious transmission of trauma across generations, the emergence and nature of attachment processes in the Russian cultural context, the emergence and nature of inter-subjectivity in our Moscow families, the communication of gender roles and the role of the father in the life of the Russian infant. This has been a very rewarding experience for myself as well as the seminar participants and over time we hope to develop the infant observation method in Russia within the context of the University setting in which the Russian analysts work. Our group presented some of our findings at the Journal of Analytical Psychology Conference held in Boston in April of 2013. We have also presented our work at the University of Humanitarian Science in Moscow, and are working together on publishing our research findings. We have been grateful to the University in Moscow for supporting our work and helping to facilitate its development in Russia. We are also appreciative of the support of Rosella Sandri (President) of the International Association of Infant Observation Trainers and the invitation to attend their international conference in Dakar, Senegal in October of 2012.
When did Child analysis arrive to Italy?
Mariella Gambini Loriga was the AIPA analyst whose influence and determination help develop the interest for the training of child analyst. Mariella was a pioneer of child Jungian analysis in Italy. She started her analysis in 1948 and her training as Jungian Analyst. In the early fifties in a Europe still under reconstruction after the devastation of the second world war, her interest for learning how to work in analysis with children brought her to Scotland to the Davidson Clinic in Edinburgh where Freudian and Jungian worked together to the treatment of severely traumatized children. This short experience, she stayed in Scotland only a few months, had to be determinant for her. In the fifties she completed her training in Zurich and worked with Walter Zublin training analyst at the Jung Institute that worked with children. She worked in different positions and contributed to let the large public know about Jungian analytic work with children. In 1973 Mariella started a group of Jungian analysts interested to work with children that for the next 20 years worked together. The group was open to CIPA and AIPA analysts as from her first experience in Edinburgh she was convinced that different theoretical background were most enriching.
The other important figure that years later influenced the development of Italian Child Analysis is Mara Sidoli. Mara trained at the SAP in London and gave regular supervision and seminars in Milan and Rome. Her seminars on mother infant interaction contributed to the development of a clinical culture that sees the first interactions between child and caregiver as paradigm of future psychic development. Changing in a way the priority of analytical training not only for child analysts but also for adult analysts.
In Italy AIPA has the oldest training in child and adolescent. AIPA training started back in 1982 and was officially settled by 1987. In fact the interest for Child Analysis was present since the founding of AIPA in 1964.
Child and Adolescent Training today is articulated in two different phases:
- The first four years, are centred on the acquisition of the official certification to become qualified psychotherapist according to the State requirements to exercise the profession.
- The second phase, 2 years is dedicated to the acquisition of the title of Jungian analytical psychologist.
Specific seminars on infant observation are part of the training in the first two years. Seminars on young child observation are part of the training of the next two years. The clinical training foresees work with children in institutions.
Cipa’s training for Jungian analysts working with children and Adolescents
The CIPA training is only for applicants that already have a degree in medicine or psychology, and already had training as adult or child psychotherapists. The training will last five years minimum. Requirements are a second personal analysis of not less than two hundred hours as well as two hundred hours of individual clinical supervision with four different analysts. One of the individual supervision can be substituted by 50 hours of group supervision.
 I’m in debt for all the information on Marilla Gambini Loriga to Brigitte Allain Duprè (SFPA) that presented in 2010 in a public lecture at CIPA Milan her interview to Mariella Loriga.
Heyong Shen and Gao Lan
Please go to RELEVANT PAPERS to read the entire paper on the Psychological Relief Work in Earthquake Zones and Orphanages in China
Please go to RELEVANT PAPERS to read the entire paper on the 2011 Earthquake in Japan: Psychotherapeutic Interventions and Change of Worldview